Rare Neurology News

Disease Profile

Sutton disease 2

Prevalence estimates on Rare Medical Network websites are calculated based on data available from numerous sources, including US and European government statistics, the NIH, Orphanet, and published epidemiologic studies. Rare disease population data is recognized to be highly variable, and based on a wide variety of source data and methodologies, so the prevalence data on this site should be assumed to be estimated and cannot be considered to be absolutely correct.


US Estimated

Europe Estimated

Age of onset





Autosomal dominant A pathogenic variant in only one gene copy in each cell is sufficient to cause an autosomal dominant disease.


Autosomal recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of each gene of the chromosome are needed to cause an autosomal recessive disease and observe the mutant phenotype.


dominant X-linked dominant inheritance, sometimes referred to as X-linked dominance, is a mode of genetic inheritance by which a dominant gene is carried on the X chromosome.


recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of a gene on the X chromosome cause an X-linked recessive disorder.


Mitochondrial or multigenic Mitochondrial genetic disorders can be caused by changes (mutations) in either the mitochondrial DNA or nuclear DNA that lead to dysfunction of the mitochondria and inadequate production of energy.


Multigenic or multifactor Inheritance involving many factors, of which at least one is genetic but none is of overwhelming importance, as in the causation of a disease by multiple genetic and environmental factors.


Not applicable


Other names (AKA)

Aphthous Stomatitis, Recurrent; Aphthous Ulcer, Recurrent; Major Aphthous Ulcer;


Sutton disease 2, also known as recurrent aphthous stomatitis, is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by painful ulcers in the mouth.[1][2] These sores, which can be of varying size and frequency, are commonly called canker sores. The exact cause of this condition is not fully understood, although it may be due to an abnormal immune response.[2] Treatment is not always necessary, but may include mouth rinses, topical ointments or systemic corticosteroids.[3]


The diagnosis of canker sores (including Sutton disease 2) is usually based on clinical examination and medical history. There are no laboratory procedures available for definitive diagnosis.[1][3] In some cases, tests may be used to check for other health problems, especially if the canker sores are severe or ongoing (lasting more than 10 to 14 days).[3][4] Dentists and/or professionals trained in oral medicine can assist in the diagnosis.[4]

Further information about the diagnosis of Sutton disease 2 can be accessed through Medscape Reference.


Treatment may not be necessary for minor canker sores which tend to clear on their own over the course of a week or two. Large, persistent or unusually painful sores may require medical care.[3] The goals of treatment are to decrease pain, speed healing and avoid recurrence. While no one therapy meets all of these goals, many do offer some benefit.[4] Treatment may include mouth rinses, topical ointments or systemic corticosteroids.[3]

More detailed information about treatment options can be accessed through the Treatment and Medication sections of Medscape Reference and through the American Academy of Oral Medicine.

Learn more

These resources provide more information about this condition or associated symptoms. The in-depth resources contain medical and scientific language that may be hard to understand. You may want to review these resources with a medical professional.

Where to Start

  • The National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) has a report for patients and families about this condition. NORD is a patient advocacy organization for individuals with rare diseases and the organizations that serve them.

In-Depth Information

  • Medscape Reference provides information on this topic. You may need to register to view the medical textbook, but registration is free.
  • The Monarch Initiative brings together data about this condition from humans and other species to help physicians and biomedical researchers. Monarch’s tools are designed to make it easier to compare the signs and symptoms (phenotypes) of different diseases and discover common features. This initiative is a collaboration between several academic institutions across the world and is funded by the National Institutes of Health. Visit the website to explore the biology of this condition.
  • PubMed is a searchable database of medical literature and lists journal articles that discuss Sutton disease 2. Click on the link to view a sample search on this topic.


  1. Plewa MC. Pediatric Aphthous Ulcers. Medscape Reference. March 28, 2012; https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/909213-overview. Accessed 2/17/2013.
  2. Sutton Disease II. National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD). 2003; https://www.rarediseases.org/rare-disease-information/rare-diseases/byID/203/viewAbstract. Accessed 2/17/2013.
  3. Canker sore. MayoClinic.com. March 24, 2012; https://www.mayoclinic.com/health/canker-sore/DS00354/METHOD=print. Accessed 2/17/2013.
  4. Canker Sores Treatment. The American Academy of Oral Medicine. December 2007; https://www.aaom.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=82:canker-sores&catid=22:patient-condition-information&Itemid=120. Accessed 2/17/2013.

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