Rare Neurology News

Necrotizing autoimmune myopathy

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The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs.Orpha Number: 206569DefinitionNecrotizing autoimmune myopathy (NAM) is a rare form of idiopathic inflammatory myopathy characterized clinically by acute or subacute proximal muscle weakness, and histopathologically by myocyte necrosis and regeneration without significant inflammation.EpidemiologyThe prevalence and annual incidence of…

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Fanconi Bickel syndrome

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Fanconi Bickel syndrome (FBS) is a rare condition characterized by the accumulation of a substance called glycogen in different parts of the body. Glycogen is created when the body needs to store glucose (sugar). When the body needs sugar again, glycogen is transformed back into glucose for use.[1] People with Fanconi Bickel syndrome do not…

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X-linked intellectual disability short stature – obesity

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The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Orpha Number: 3055 Definition X-linked intellectual disabilityhypogonadism-ichthyosis-obesityshort stature syndrome is a rare X-linked intellectual disability syndrome characterized by intellectual disability associated with short stature, obesity, primary hypogonadism and an ichthyosiform skin condition. There have been no further…

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Factor V Leiden thrombophilia

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Factor V Leiden thrombophilia is a genetic disorder that makes it more likely for you to develop a blood clot sometime during your life. Still, it is estimated that 95% of people with factor V Leiden never develop a clot. When a clot does form, the clot most often occurs in your leg (deep venous…

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Fetal left ventricular aneurysm

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Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 3

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Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome (APS) type 3 is an autoimmune condition that affects the body’s endocrine glands. The syndrome, which typically affects women during middle age, results from failure of the glands to produce their hormones. This condition is characterized by autoimmune thyroiditis along with another organ-specific autoimmune disease.[1][2][3] The other autoimmune diseases may include diabetes mellitus, pernicious anemia, vitiligo, alopecia,…

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Fibromuscular dysplasia

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Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) is a condition characterized by abnormal development or growth of cells in the walls of blood vessels (arteries) that can cause the vessels to narrow. The carotid arteries, which pass through the neck and supply blood to the brain, are commonly affected. Arteries within the brain and kidneys can also be affected….

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Crigler-Najjar syndrome type 2

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Crigler-Najjar syndrome type 2 (CN-2) is a rare disorder that causes elevated levels of bilirubin in the blood (hyperbilirubinemia). Bilirubin normally is made by the body when old red blood cells are broken down. However, people with CN-2 develop hyperbilirubinemia even when red blood cells are not excessively broken down, because they have too little of a…

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Follicular lymphoreticuloma

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Gordon syndrome

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Gordon Syndrome is a rare, inherited disorder that affects movement in the joints of the upper and lower limbs, also known as distal arthrogryposis. People with this disorder can be born with several fingers fixed in a flexed position (camptodactyly), clubfoot, and an opening in the roof of the mouth (cleft palate). Their joints are…

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Fronto nasal malformation cloacal exstrophy

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Atrial septal defect coronary sinus

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Richards-Rundle syndrome

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The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Orpha Number: 1399 Definition Richards-Rundle syndrome is an extremely rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive spinocerebellar ataxia, sensorineural hearing loss, and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism associated with additional neurological manifestations (such as peripheral muscle wasting, nystagmus, intellectual disability or…

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Gastro-enteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumor

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Atypical Werner syndrome

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The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Orpha Number: 79474 Definition An heterogeneous group of cases that are clinically diagnosed as Werner syndrome (WS) but do not carry WRN gene mutations. Similar to classical WS caused by WRN mutations, patients generally exhibit an aged…

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Genochondromatosis

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Glaucoma, primary infantile type 3A

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Osteopetrosis autosomal dominant type 1

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Osteopetrosis refers to a group of rare, inherited skeletal disorders characterized by increased bone density and abnormal bone growth.[1][2] Symptoms and severity can vary greatly, ranging from neonatal onset with life-threatening complications (such as bone marrow failure) to the incidental finding of osteopetrosis on X-ray. Depending on severity and age of onset, features may include fractures, short stature,…

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Glycogen storage disease 8

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Autosomal recessive protein C deficiency

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Autosomal recessive protein C deficiency is an inherited blood clotting disorder characterized by serious protein C deficiency. The disease may be very severe and associated with neonatal purpura fulminans (NPF) or intracranial thromboembolism. It may also be a milder disorder where patients present with clotting (venous thromboembolism) in childhood, adolescence, or adulthood.[1] It is caused by having…

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Graham-Little-Piccardi-Lassueur syndrome

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Graham-Little-Piccardi-Lassueur syndrome (GLPLS) is a rare type of scarring hair loss. It is most commonly found in otherwise healthy women between the ages of 30 and 70 years. GLPLS is characterized by three features: progressive patchy scarring hair loss of the scalp (cicatricial alopecia), non-scarring thinning of the hair in the armpits and groin (noncicatricial…

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Spastic paraplegia 32

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The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Orpha Number: 171622 Definition Autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia type 32 (SPG32) is a rare, complex type of hereditary spastic paraplegia characterized by a slowly progressive spastic paraplegia (with walking difficulties appearing at onset at 6-7 years of…

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Haemophilus influenzae

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MYD88 deficiency

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MYD88 deficiency is a rare primary immunodeficiency characterized by an increased susceptibility to certain types of bacterial infections. People affected by this condition generally have abnormally frequent and life-threatening infections caused by pyogenic bacteria (such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). However, their immune response to other common bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites…

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Hereditary alpha tryptasemia syndrome

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Hereditary alpha tryptasemia syndrome is a condition characterized by high blood tryptase levels, and by several symptoms associated with multiple organ systems. These symptoms may include allergic-like symptoms (skin itching, flushing, hives, or anaphylaxis); gastrointestinal symptoms such as bloating, abdominal pain, diarrhea and/or constipation (often diagnosed as irritable bowel syndrome), heartburn, reflux, and difficulty swallowing;…

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Bardet-Biedl syndrome 4

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Hereditary sensorimotor neuropathy with hyperelastic skin

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The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Orpha Number: 280598 Definition Hereditary sensorimotor neuropathy with hyperelastic skin is a rare, genetic, demyelinating hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy disorder characterized by slowly progressive, mild to moderate, distal muscle weakness and atrophy of the upper and…

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Graves disease

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Graves’ disease is an autoimmune disorder that leads to overactivity of the thyroid gland (hyperthyroidism). It is caused by the immune system mistakenly attacking the thyroid gland, causing the gland to produce too much thyroid hormone. Graves disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism and occurs most often in women over age 20. However, the disorder may…

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Immunodeficiency with hyper IgM type 3

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Becker’s nevus

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Becker’s nevus is a non-cancerous, large, brown birthmark occurring mostly in males. It can be present at birth, but is usually first noticed around puberty. It typically occurs on one shoulder and upper trunk but occasionally occurs elsewhere on the body. A Becker’s nevus often becomes darker, and excessive hair growth (hypertrichosis) and acne may develop…

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Morse-Rawnsley-Sargent syndrome

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The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Orpha Number: 2570 Definition Holoprosencephaly-hypokinesia syndrome is an extremely rare and fatal central nervous system malformation occurring during embryogenesis, presenting prenatally with holoprosencephaly and fetal hypokinesia as major features. Other manifestations include microcephaly, multiple contractures and intrauterine…

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Benign mesonephroma

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Benign mesonephroma (Wolffian tumors or Wolffian duct adenomas) are rare tumors located anywhere along the length between the ovary and vagina in sites of remnant wolffian ducts. Wolffian ducts are structures in a developing embryo that get incorporated into the reproductive system in males and degenerate in females. Wolffian tumors are thought to have a…

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HIBCH deficiency

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HIBCH deficiency is a rare metabolic disease. Early symptoms include poor muscle tone, poor feeding, seizures, and a gradual loss of skills. HIBCH deficiency can cause signs and symptoms similar to another disease, called Leigh syndrome.[1] Diagnosis is aided by blood tests which show high levels of lactic acid, and imaging studies which show changes…

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Jackhammer esophagus

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Jackhammer esophagus is a motility disorder of the esophagus, the tube that connects the mouth with the stomach, classified under esophageal spasms. Esophageal spasms are divided in 2 main types, diffuse esophageal spasm and hypertensive peristalsis or nutcracker esophagus. Jackhammer esophagus is the most serious manifestation of the hypertensive type and it is also known as…

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Choanal atresia-hearing loss-cardiac defects-craniofacial dysmorphism syndrome

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The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Orpha Number: 1200 Definition Choanal atresia deafness cardiac defects dysmorphism syndrome, also known as Burn-McKeown syndrome, is an extremely rare multiple congenital anomaly syndrome characterized by bilateral choanal atresia (see this term) associated with a characteristic cranio-facial…

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Hypnic headache

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Seckel like syndrome Majoor-Krakauer type

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Pallister-Hall syndrome

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Pallister-Hall syndrome (PHS) is a genetic disease that affects the development of many parts of the body. Common features include extra fingers and/or toes (polydactyly), extra skin between the fingers or toes (syndactyly), an abnormal growth in the brain called a hypothalamic hamartoma, and a malformation of the airway known as bifid epiglottis.[1] The bifid epiglottis in rare cases may…

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Blepharoptosis myopia ectopia lentis

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The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Orpha Number: 1259 Definition This syndrome is characterised by bilateral congenital blepharoptosis, ectopia lentis and high myopia. Epidemiology It has been described in three members of one family (in a mother and her two daughters). Genetic counseling…

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Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases

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Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases (MSMD) is a rare immunodeficiency syndrome, with susceptibility to mycobacteria, such as the vaccine against tuberculosis (bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) and environmental mycobacteria. It is characterized by severe, recurrent infections, either systemic (widespread) or localized. It has many subtypes. The most serious types are the autosomal recessive complete interferon gamma receptor 1 (IFN-gammaR1)…

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Whooping cough

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IMAGe syndrome

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The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Orpha Number: 85173 Definition IMAGe syndrome is characterized by the association of Intrauterine growth retardation, Metaphyseal dysplasia (and short limbs), Adrenal hypoplasia congenita, and Genital anomalies. It has been described in less than 20 cases. The patients…

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Brachydactyly elbow wrist dysplasia

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The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Orpha Number: 1275 Definition Brachydactyly-elbow wrist dysplasia syndrome is a rare, genetic bone development disorder characterized by dysplasia of all the bony components of the elbow joint, abnormally shaped carpal bones, wrist joint radial deviation and brachydactyly….

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Infectious myocarditis

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Polycystic lipomembranous osteodysplasia with sclerosing leukoencephalopathy

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The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Orpha Number: 2770 Definition Nasu-Hakola disease (NHD), also referred to as polycystic lipomembranous osteodysplasia with sclerosing leukoencephalopathy (PLOSL), is a rare inherited leukodystrophy characterized by progressive presenile dementia associated with recurrent bone fractures due to polycystic osseous…

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Intermediate congenital nemaline myopathy

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The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Orpha Number: 171433 Definition Intermediate nemaline myopathy is a type of nemaline myopathy (NM; see this term) that shows features of typical NM (see this term) in neonates with a more severe progression. Epidemiology The annual incidence…

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Bronchiolitis obliterans

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Bronchiolitis obliterans is an inflammatory condition that affects the lung’s tiniest airways, the bronchioles. In affected people, the bronchioles may become damaged and inflamed leading to extensive scarring that blocks the airways. Signs and symptoms of the condition include a dry cough; shortness of breath; and/or fatigue and wheezing in the absence of a cold…

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Japanese encephalitis

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Paternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 14

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Genoa syndrome

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Genoa syndrome is a rare condition that primarily affects the brain and skull. Babies with this condition are generally born with semilobar holoprosencephaly, a disorder caused by failure of the developing brain to sufficiently divide into the double lobes of the cerebral hemispheres. They later develop craniosynostosis (the premature closure of one or more of…

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Cantu Sanchez-Corona Hernandez syndrome

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Krukenberg carcinoma

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Hyperlipoproteinemia type 4

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Cardiomyopathy and deafness due to tRNA lysine gene mutation

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A specific change in the MTTK gene causes a condition characterized by weakened heart muscle (cardiomyopathy) and hearing loss. Affected individuals may also have myopathy and ataxia. This mutation replaces the DNA building block (nucleotide) guanine with the nucleotide adenine at position 8363 (written as G8363A) within the gene. It is unclear how this alteration…

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Lenz microphthalmia syndrome

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Lenz microphthalmia syndrome is one of a group of genetic disorders known as syndromic microphthalmia. These conditions involve abnormal development of the eyes and several other parts of the body. Eye symptoms may include underdeveloped (small)or absent eyes, clouding of the lens (cataracts), uncontrolled eye movements (nystagmus),a gap or split in structures that make up…

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Metaphyseal dysplasia without hypotrichosis

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Catatrichy

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Liposarcoma

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Liposarcoma is a tumor that arises from fat tissue. This tumor often occurs in the thigh, legs, behind the knee, or in the abdomen, but it can be found in other parts of the body, in the retroperitoneum; and, less often, in the head and neck area. Their primary occurrence in the skin is rare. Because a liposarcoma may…

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Lower mesodermal defects sequence

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Central congenital hypothyroidism

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The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Orpha Number: 226298 Definition Central or secondary congenital hypothyroidism is a type of permanent congenital hypothyroidism (see this term) characterized by permanent thyroid hormone deficiency that is present from birth and secondary to a disorder in the…

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Mycobacterium Avium Complex infections

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Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) refers to infections caused by two types of bacteria: Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium intracellulare.[1][2] MAC bacteria do not make most people sick. However, people with immune systems that do not work well (from HIV/AIDS or certain cancers for example) or people with lung disease (such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or cystic…

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Ceroid lipofuscinosis neuronal 1

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Marburg hemorrhagic fever

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Neuropathy, hereditary motor and sensory, Russe type

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The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Orpha Number: 99953 Definition Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4G (CMT4G) is a subtype of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4 characterized by early childhood onset of progressive distal muscle weakness and atrophy, delayed motor development, prominent distal sensory impairment, areflexia,…

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Microphthalmia syndromic 8

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The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Orpha Number: 3434 Definition The MMEP syndrome is a congenital syndromic form of split-hand/foot malformation (SHFM; see this term). It is characterized by microcephaly, microphthalmia, ectrodactyly of the lower limbs and prognathism. Intellectual deficit has been reported….

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Childhood-onset nemaline myopathy

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The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Orpha Number: 171439 Definition Childhood onset nemaline myopathy, or mild nemaline myopathy is a type of nemaline myopathy (NM; see this terms) characterized by distal muscle weakness, and sometimes slowness of muscle contraction. Epidemiology The annual incidence…

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Chondrodysplasia with joint dislocations, GPAPP type

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The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Orpha Number: 280586 Definition Chondrodysplasia with joint dislocations, gPAPP type is a rare, genetic, primary bone dysplasia characterized by prenatal onset of disproportionate short stature, shortening of the limbs, congenital joint dislocations, micrognathia, posterior cleft palate, brachydactyly,…

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Mesomelic dysplasia skin dimples

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Chromhidrosis

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Microcephaly micropenis convulsions

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Chromosome 15q duplication

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Chromosome 15q duplication is a chromosome abnormality that occurs when an extra (duplicate) copy of the genetic material located on the long arm (q) of chromosome 15 is present in each cell. The severity of the condition and the associated signs and symptoms vary based on the size and location of the duplication and which…

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Minicore myopathy, antenatal onset, with arthrogryposis

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Mononeuritis multiplex

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Chromosome 21q duplication

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Multiple sclerosis

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Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a degenerative disorder that affects the central nervous system, specifically the brain and the spinal cord. The disorder is characterized by destruction of the myelin, the fatty tissue that surrounds and protects the nerve fibers and promotes the transmission of nerve impulses, and damage to nerve cells. The symptoms vary widely from person to…

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Chromosome 6q deletion

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Chromosome 6q deletion is a chromosome abnormality that occurs when there is a missing copy of the genetic material located on the long arm (q) of chromosome 6. The severity of the condition and the signs and symptoms depend on the size and location of the deletion and which genes are involved. Features that often…

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Mutagen sensitivity

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19p13.12 microdeletion syndrome

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The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Orpha Number: 254346 Definition 19p13.12 microdeletion syndrome is a newly described syndrome characterized by moderate to severe developmental delay, language delay, bilateral sensorineural and/or conductive hearing loss and facial dysmorphism. Epidemiology It has been reported in 6…

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Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis

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Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, or NASH, is a common, often “silent” liver disease. It resembles alcoholic liver disease, but occurs in people who drink little or no alcohol. The major feature in NASH is fat in the liver, along with inflammation and damage. Most people with NASH feel well and are not aware that they have a…

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Chylothorax, congenital

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Neuroepithelioma

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Hemochromatosis type 1

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Hemochromatosis type 1 is a disease in which too much iron builds up in the body. This is also called iron overload. Accumulation of iron in the organs is toxic and can cause organ damage. While many organs can be affected, iron overload is especially likely to affect the liver, heart, and pancreas. Early symptoms…

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Non-lissencephalic cortical dysplasia

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Omphalocele cleft palate syndrome lethal

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The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Orpha Number: 2736 Definition Lethal omphalocelecleft palate syndrome is characterized by the association of omphalocele and cleft palate. It has been described in three daughters of normal unrelated parents. They were all diagnosed at birth. One had…

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Ocular toxoplasmosis

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Ocular toxoplasmosis is an infection in the eye caused by the parasite, Toxoplasm a gondii. Toxoplasmosis is the most common cause of eye inflammation in the world. Toxoplamosis can be acquired or present at birth (congenital), having crossed the placenta from a newly infected mother to her fetus. Most humans acquire toxoplasmosis by eating raw or undercooked meat, vegetables or…

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Cutis marmorata telangiectatica congenita

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Cutis marmorata telangiectatica congenita (CMTC) is a birth defect involving the skin and blood vessels. It is characterized by patches of marbled-looking skin (cutis marmarota), small widened blood vessels under the skin (telangiectasia) and varicose veins (phlebectasia).[1][2] The skin findings most often occur on the legs, but may also occur on the arms and trunk. The face…

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Potter sequence

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Potter sequence refers to a group of features that can result when there is too little amniotic fluid (oligohydramnios) surrounding a baby while in the uterus. This can cause distinct facial features (Potter facies), which may include a flattened nose, recessed chin, skin folds covering the corners of the eyes (epicanthal folds), and low-set abnormal…

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Cohen syndrome

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Cohen syndrome is a congenital (present since birth) condition that was first described in 1973 by Dr. M.M. Cohen, Jr. When the syndrome was first described, it was believed that its main features were obesity, hypotonia (low muscle tone), intellectual disabilities, distinctive facial features with prominent upper central teeth and abnormalities of the hands and feet….

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Oral lichen planus

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Oral lichen planus is a inflammatory condition that affects the inside of the mouth. Signs and symptoms include patches of fine white lines and dots most commonly in the inside of the cheeks, gums, and/or tongue. Most people with lichen planus experience no to few symptoms, others may have painful sores or ulcers in the mouth. Severe lichen…

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Combined pituitary hormone deficiencies, genetic forms

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Cone dystrophy X-linked with tapetal-like sheen

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Papular epidermal nevi with skyline basal cell layers syndrome

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Papular epidermal nevus with “skyline” basal cell layer syndrome (PENS) is a very rare type of keratinocytic epidermal nevi that includes a specific type of skin lesion and can be associated with other birth defects and neurological problems.[1][2][3][4][5] The skin lesions appear as small, slightly scaly, pimples (papules) made of the thickened outer layer of the…

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Crome syndrome

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The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Orpha Number: 1380 Definition Cataract nephropathy encephalopathy syndrome describes a lethal combination of manifestations including short stature, congenital cataracts, encephalopathy with epileptic fits, and postmortem confirmation of nephropathy (renal tubular necrosis). The combination of cataract nephropathy encephalopathy…

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Patulous Eustachian Tube

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Patulous eustachian tube is a benign but symptomatically troubling condition in which the eustachian tube stays open most of the time.[1][2] The eustachian tube is the tube that runs between the middle ear and throat and regulates the ear pressure around the ear drum.[3] Under normal circumstances, it remains closed most of the time, opening only on…

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Neonatal systemic lupus erythematosus

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Nemaline myopathy

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Nemaline myopathy is a disorder that primarily affects skeletal muscles, which are muscles that the body uses for movement. People with nemaline myopathy have muscle weakness (myopathy) throughout the body, but it is typically most severe in the muscles of the face, neck, and limbs. This weakness can worsen over time. Affected individuals may have…

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Conotruncal heart malformations

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The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Orpha Number: 2445 Definition A group of congenital cardiac outflow tract anomalies that include such defects as tetralogy of Fallot, pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect, double-outlet right ventricle (DORV), double-outlet left ventricle, truncus arteriosus and transposition…

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Corpus callosum agenesis of blepharophimosis Robin type

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