Rare Neurology News

Disease Profile

Virus associated hemophagocytic syndrome

Prevalence
Prevalence estimates on Rare Medical Network websites are calculated based on data available from numerous sources, including US and European government statistics, the NIH, Orphanet, and published epidemiologic studies. Rare disease population data is recognized to be highly variable, and based on a wide variety of source data and methodologies, so the prevalence data on this site should be assumed to be estimated and cannot be considered to be absolutely correct.

Unknown

Age of onset

All ages

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ICD-10

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Inheritance

Autosomal dominant A pathogenic variant in only one gene copy in each cell is sufficient to cause an autosomal dominant disease

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Autosomal recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of each gene of the chromosome are needed to cause an autosomal recessive disease and observe the mutant phenotype

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X-linked
dominant X-linked dominant inheritance, sometimes referred to as X-linked dominance, is a mode of genetic inheritance by which a dominant gene is carried on the X chromosome.

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X-linked
recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of a gene on the X chromosome cause an X-linked recessive disorder

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Mitochondrial or multigenic Mitochondrial genetic disorders can be caused by changes (mutations) in either the mitochondrial DNA or nuclear DNA that lead to dysfunction of the mitochondria and inadequate production of energy.

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Multigenic or multifactor Inheritance involving many factors, of which at least one is genetic but none is of overwhelming importance, as in the causation of a disease by multiple genetic and environmental factors.

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Not applicable

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Summary

Virus associated hemophagocytic syndrome is a very serious complication of a viral infection. Signs and symptoms of virus associated hemophagocytic syndrome, include high fever, liver problems, enlarged liver and spleen, coagulation factor abnormalities, decreased red or white blood cells and platelets (pancytopenia), and a build-up of histiocytes, a type of immune cell, in various tissues in the body resulting in the destruction of blood-producing cells (histiocytic proliferation with prominent hemophagocytosis).[1] 

Diagnosis is based upon the signs and symptoms of the patient. The cause of the condition is not known. Treatment is challenging and approach will vary depending on the age and medical history of the patient. Complications of this syndrome can become life threatening. Related conditions (conditions with overlapping signs and symptoms), include histiocytic medullary reticulosis (HMR), familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL), and X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome.[1]

Organizations

Support and advocacy groups can help you connect with other patients and families, and they can provide valuable services. Many develop patient-centered information and are the driving force behind research for better treatments and possible cures. They can direct you to research, resources, and services. Many organizations also have experts who serve as medical advisors or provide lists of doctors/clinics. Visit the group’s website or contact them to learn about the services they offer. Inclusion on this list is not an endorsement by GARD.

Organizations Providing General Support

    References

    1. Kikuta H et al.,. Fatal Epstein-Barr virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome. . Blood. 1993;82:3259-3264; https://bloodjournal.hematologylibrary.org/content/82/11/3259.full.pdf. Accessed 5/8/2013.