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Disease Profile

Progressive transformation of germinal centers

Prevalence estimates on Rare Medical Network websites are calculated based on data available from numerous sources, including US and European government statistics, the NIH, Orphanet, and published epidemiologic studies. Rare disease population data is recognized to be highly variable, and based on a wide variety of source data and methodologies, so the prevalence data on this site should be assumed to be estimated and cannot be considered to be absolutely correct.


Age of onset





Autosomal dominant A pathogenic variant in only one gene copy in each cell is sufficient to cause an autosomal dominant disease.


Autosomal recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of each gene of the chromosome are needed to cause an autosomal recessive disease and observe the mutant phenotype.


dominant X-linked dominant inheritance, sometimes referred to as X-linked dominance, is a mode of genetic inheritance by which a dominant gene is carried on the X chromosome.


recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of a gene on the X chromosome cause an X-linked recessive disorder.


Mitochondrial or multigenic Mitochondrial genetic disorders can be caused by changes (mutations) in either the mitochondrial DNA or nuclear DNA that lead to dysfunction of the mitochondria and inadequate production of energy.


Multigenic or multifactor Inheritance involving many factors, of which at least one is genetic but none is of overwhelming importance, as in the causation of a disease by multiple genetic and environmental factors.


Not applicable


Other names (AKA)



Progressive transformation of germinal centers is a condition in which a lymph node becomes very enlarged (lymphadenopathy). Typically, only one lymph node is affected, though PTGC can involve multiple lymph nodes. The neck is the most common location of affected lymph nodes, but PTGC may also affect lymph nodes in the groin and armpits. Adults are more frequently affected than children, but children have a higher chance of developing PTGC multiple times (recurrence). PTGC is not considered a precancerous condition, though it has been associated with Hodgkin lymphoma.[1]


The cause of progressive transformation of germinal centers (PTGC) is currently unknown.[2] Also, there is no evidence in the medical literature that PTGC is a genetic condition.


Because progressive transformation of germinal centers (PTGC) is considered a benign condition and usually has no symptoms other than the enlarged lymph node, no treatment is necessary. The enlarged lymph node may stay the same size or shrink over time.[3] Affected individuals should have regular follow-up visits with their physician; a biopsy should be taken of any new enlarged lymph node because PTGC is associated with Hodgkin lymphoma in some individuals.[1]

Learn more

These resources provide more information about this condition or associated symptoms. The in-depth resources contain medical and scientific language that may be hard to understand. You may want to review these resources with a medical professional.

In-Depth Information

  • The Monarch Initiative brings together data about this condition from humans and other species to help physicians and biomedical researchers. Monarch’s tools are designed to make it easier to compare the signs and symptoms (phenotypes) of different diseases and discover common features. This initiative is a collaboration between several academic institutions across the world and is funded by the National Institutes of Health. Visit the website to explore the biology of this condition.


  1. Hicks J, Flaitz C. Progressive transformation of germinal centers: review of histopathologic and clinical features. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology. 2002; 65:195-202. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12242134. Accessed 4/23/2013.
  2. Chang CC, Osipov V, Wheaton S, Tripp S, Perkins SL. Follicular hyperplasia, follicular lysis, and progressive transformation of germinal centers. A sequential spectrum of morphologic evolution in lymphoid hyperplasia. American Journal of Clinical Pathology. 2003; 120:322-326. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14502795. Accessed 4/23/2013.
  3. Brown JR, Skarin AT. Clinical mimics of lymphoma. The Oncologist. 2004; 9:406-416. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15266094. Accessed 4/23/2013.

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