Rare Neurology News

Disease Profile

Hepatoblastoma

Prevalence
Prevalence estimates on Rare Medical Network websites are calculated based on data available from numerous sources, including US and European government statistics, the NIH, Orphanet, and published epidemiologic studies. Rare disease population data is recognized to be highly variable, and based on a wide variety of source data and methodologies, so the prevalence data on this site should be assumed to be estimated and cannot be considered to be absolutely correct.

Unknown

Age of onset

Neonatal

ICD-10

C22.2

Inheritance

Autosomal dominant A pathogenic variant in only one gene copy in each cell is sufficient to cause an autosomal dominant disease

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Autosomal recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of each gene of the chromosome are needed to cause an autosomal recessive disease and observe the mutant phenotype

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X-linked
dominant X-linked dominant inheritance, sometimes referred to as X-linked dominance, is a mode of genetic inheritance by which a dominant gene is carried on the X chromosome.

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X-linked
recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of a gene on the X chromosome cause an X-linked recessive disorder

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Mitochondrial or multigenic Mitochondrial genetic disorders can be caused by changes (mutations) in either the mitochondrial DNA or nuclear DNA that lead to dysfunction of the mitochondria and inadequate production of energy.

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Multigenic or multifactor Inheritance involving many factors, of which at least one is genetic but none is of overwhelming importance, as in the causation of a disease by multiple genetic and environmental factors.

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Not applicable

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Categories

Digestive Diseases; Rare Cancers

Summary

Hepatoblastoma is a rare malignant (cancerous) tumor of the liver that usually occurs in the first 3 years of life. In early stages of the condition, there may be no concerning signs or symptoms. As the tumor gets larger, affected children may experience a painful, abdominal lump; swelling of the abdomen; unexplained weight loss; loss of appetite; and/or nausea and vomiting. The exact underlying cause of hepatoblastoma is poorly understood. Risk factors for the tumor include prematurity with a very low birth weight, early exposure to hepatitis B infection, biliary atresia, and several different genetic conditions (i.e. Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, familial adenomatous polyposis, Aicardi syndrome, Glycogen storage disease, and Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome). Treatment varies based on the severity of the condition but may include a combination of surgery, watchful waiting, chemotherapy, and/or radiation therapy.[1][2][3]

Symptoms

This table lists symptoms that people with this disease may have. For most diseases, symptoms will vary from person to person. People with the same disease may not have all the symptoms listed. This information comes from a database called the Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) . The HPO collects information on symptoms that have been described in medical resources. The HPO is updated regularly. Use the HPO ID to access more in-depth information about a symptom.

Medical Terms Other Names
Learn More:
HPO ID
Percent of people who have these symptoms is not available through HPO
Hepatocellular carcinoma
0001402
Micronodular cirrhosis
0001413
Somatic mutation
0001428
Subacute progressive viral hepatitis
0006572

Organizations

Support and advocacy groups can help you connect with other patients and families, and they can provide valuable services. Many develop patient-centered information and are the driving force behind research for better treatments and possible cures. They can direct you to research, resources, and services. Many organizations also have experts who serve as medical advisors or provide lists of doctors/clinics. Visit the group’s website or contact them to learn about the services they offer. Inclusion on this list is not an endorsement by GARD.

Organizations Supporting this Disease

    Organizations Providing General Support

      Learn more

      These resources provide more information about this condition or associated symptoms. The in-depth resources contain medical and scientific language that may be hard to understand. You may want to review these resources with a medical professional.

      Where to Start

      • The National Cancer Institute provides the most current information on cancer for patients, health professionals, and the general public.

        In-Depth Information

        • Medscape Reference provides information on this topic. You may need to register to view the medical textbook, but registration is free.
        • The Monarch Initiative brings together data about this condition from humans and other species to help physicians and biomedical researchers. Monarch’s tools are designed to make it easier to compare the signs and symptoms (phenotypes) of different diseases and discover common features. This initiative is a collaboration between several academic institutions across the world and is funded by the National Institutes of Health. Visit the website to explore the biology of this condition.
        • Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) is a catalog of human genes and genetic disorders. Each entry has a summary of related medical articles. It is meant for health care professionals and researchers. OMIM is maintained by Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. 
        • Orphanet is a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Access to this database is free of charge.

          References

          1. Jennifer Reikes Willert, MD. Pediatric Hepatoblastoma. Medscape Reference. November 2014; https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/986802-overview.
          2. Childhood Liver Cancer Treatment (PDQ®). National Cancer Institute. December 2015; https://www.cancer.gov/types/liver/patient/child-liver-treatment-pdq#section/_1.
          3. Devi LP1, Kumar R, Handique A, Kumar M. Hepatoblastoma--a rare liver tumor with review of literature. J Gastrointest Cancer. December 2014; 45 Suppl 1:261-264.