Rare Neurology News

Disease Profile

Hansen’s disease

Prevalence
Prevalence estimates on Rare Medical Network websites are calculated based on data available from numerous sources, including US and European government statistics, the NIH, Orphanet, and published epidemiologic studies. Rare disease population data is recognized to be highly variable, and based on a wide variety of source data and methodologies, so the prevalence data on this site should be assumed to be estimated and cannot be considered to be absolutely correct.

Unknown

Age of onset

All ages

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ICD-10

A30.0 A30.1 A30.2 A30.3 A30.4 A30.5 A30.8 A30.9

Inheritance

Autosomal dominant A pathogenic variant in only one gene copy in each cell is sufficient to cause an autosomal dominant disease

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Autosomal recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of each gene of the chromosome are needed to cause an autosomal recessive disease and observe the mutant phenotype

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X-linked
dominant X-linked dominant inheritance, sometimes referred to as X-linked dominance, is a mode of genetic inheritance by which a dominant gene is carried on the X chromosome.

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X-linked
recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of a gene on the X chromosome cause an X-linked recessive disorder

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Mitochondrial or multigenic Mitochondrial genetic disorders can be caused by changes (mutations) in either the mitochondrial DNA or nuclear DNA that lead to dysfunction of the mitochondria and inadequate production of energy.

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Multigenic or multifactor Inheritance involving many factors, of which at least one is genetic but none is of overwhelming importance, as in the causation of a disease by multiple genetic and environmental factors.

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Not applicable

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Other names (AKA)

Leprosy

Categories

Bacterial infections; Male Reproductive Diseases; Nervous System Diseases

Summary

Hansen's disease (also known as leprosy) is a rare bacterial infection that affects the skin, nerves and mucous membranes. After exposure, it may take anywhere from 2 to 10 years to develop features of the condition. Once present, common signs and symptoms include skin lesions; muscle weakness or paralysis; eye problems that may lead to blindness; nosebleeds; severe pain; and/or numbness in the hands, feet, arms and legs. Hansen's disease is caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium leprae; however, the way in which the bacterium is transmitted (spread) is poorly understood. It appears that only about 5% of people are susceptible to the condition. Hansen's disease is easily treated with combination antibiotics for 6 months to 2 years.[1][2]

Symptoms

This table lists symptoms that people with this disease may have. For most diseases, symptoms will vary from person to person. People with the same disease may not have all the symptoms listed. This information comes from a database called the Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) . The HPO collects information on symptoms that have been described in medical resources. The HPO is updated regularly. Use the HPO ID to access more in-depth information about a symptom.

Medical Terms Other Names
Learn More:
HPO ID
30%-79% of people have these symptoms
Abnormal autonomic nervous system physiology
0012332
Acral ulceration
0006121
Acute episodes of neuropathic symptoms
0003489
Dissociated sensory loss
0010835
Enlarged peripheral nerve
0012645
Hyperkeratosis
0000962
Hypohidrosis
Decreased ability to sweat
Decreased sweating
Sweating, decreased

[ more ]

0000966
Hypopigmented macule
0020073
Impaired temperature sensation
Abnormality of temperature sensation
Loss of temperature sensation

[ more ]

0010829
Paresthesia
Pins and needles feeling
Tingling

[ more ]

0003401
Skeletal muscle atrophy
Muscle degeneration
Muscle wasting

[ more ]

0003202
Skin nodule
0200036
Sparse body hair
0002231
5%-29% of people have these symptoms
Abnormality of facial skeleton
Anomaly of facial skeleton
0011821
Abnormality of the seventh cranial nerve
0010827
Abnormality of the upper respiratory tract
Upper respiratory tract issues
0002087
Absent eyebrow
Failure of development of eyebrows
0002223
Alopecia
Hair loss
0001596
Constrictive median neuropathy
0012185
Corneal ulceration
0012804
Decreased corneal sensation
0012155
Epistaxis
Bloody nose
Frequent nosebleeds
Nose bleed
Nose bleeding
Nosebleed

[ more ]

0000421
Facial shape deformation
0011334
Foot dorsiflexor weakness
Foot drop
0009027
Hyperalgesia
0031005
Loss of eyelashes
Eyelashes fell out
Missing eyelashes

[ more ]

0011457
Paralytic lagophthalmos
0030003
Penetrating foot ulcers
0001026
Steppage gait
High stepping
0003376
Urticarial plaque
0030351
Verrucous papule
0012500
1%-4% of people have these symptoms
Abnormality of bone marrow cell morphology
0005561
Abnormality of the adrenal glands
Adrenal abnormalities
0000834
Abnormality of the liver
Abnormal liver
Liver abnormality

[ more ]

0001392
Abnormality of the spleen
0001743
Blindness
0000618
Corneal perforation
0100583
Glaucoma
0000501
Gynecomastia
Enlarged male breast
0000771
Iritis
Inflammation of iris
0001101
Testicular mass
0032404
Uveitis
0000554

Treatment

FDA-Approved Treatments

The medication(s) listed below have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as orphan products for treatment of this condition. Learn more orphan products.

Organizations

Support and advocacy groups can help you connect with other patients and families, and they can provide valuable services. Many develop patient-centered information and are the driving force behind research for better treatments and possible cures. They can direct you to research, resources, and services. Many organizations also have experts who serve as medical advisors or provide lists of doctors/clinics. Visit the group’s website or contact them to learn about the services they offer. Inclusion on this list is not an endorsement by GARD.

Organizations Supporting this Disease

    Learn more

    These resources provide more information about this condition or associated symptoms. The in-depth resources contain medical and scientific language that may be hard to understand. You may want to review these resources with a medical professional.

    Where to Start

    • You can obtain information on this topic from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The CDC is recognized as the lead federal agency for developing and applying disease prevention and control, environmental health, and health promotion and education activities designed to improve the health of the people of the United States.
    • MedlinePlus was designed by the National Library of Medicine to help you research your health questions, and it provides more information about this topic.
    • The Merck Manuals Online Medical Library provides information on this condition for patients and caregivers.
    • The National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) has a report for patients and families about this condition. NORD is a patient advocacy organization for individuals with rare diseases and the organizations that serve them.

      In-Depth Information

      • Medscape Reference provides information on this topic. You may need to register to view the medical textbook, but registration is free.
      • The Merck Manual for health care professionals provides information on Hansen's disease.
      • MeSH® (Medical Subject Headings) is a terminology tool used by the National Library of Medicine. Click on the link to view information on this topic.
      • Orphanet is a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Access to this database is free of charge.
      • PubMed is a searchable database of medical literature and lists journal articles that discuss Hansen's disease. Click on the link to view a sample search on this topic.

        References

        1. Hansen's Disease (Leprosy). Center for Disease Control and Prevention. April 2013; https://www.cdc.gov/leprosy/index.html.
        2. Leprosy. MedlinePlus. September 2013; https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001347.htm.