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Disease Profile

Autoimmune oophoritis

Prevalence estimates on Rare Medical Network websites are calculated based on data available from numerous sources, including US and European government statistics, the NIH, Orphanet, and published epidemiologic studies. Rare disease population data is recognized to be highly variable, and based on a wide variety of source data and methodologies, so the prevalence data on this site should be assumed to be estimated and cannot be considered to be absolutely correct.


US Estimated

Europe Estimated

Age of onset





Autosomal dominant A pathogenic variant in only one gene copy in each cell is sufficient to cause an autosomal dominant disease.


Autosomal recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of each gene of the chromosome are needed to cause an autosomal recessive disease and observe the mutant phenotype.


dominant X-linked dominant inheritance, sometimes referred to as X-linked dominance, is a mode of genetic inheritance by which a dominant gene is carried on the X chromosome.


recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of a gene on the X chromosome cause an X-linked recessive disorder.


Mitochondrial or multigenic Mitochondrial genetic disorders can be caused by changes (mutations) in either the mitochondrial DNA or nuclear DNA that lead to dysfunction of the mitochondria and inadequate production of energy.


Multigenic or multifactor Inheritance involving many factors, of which at least one is genetic but none is of overwhelming importance, as in the causation of a disease by multiple genetic and environmental factors.


Not applicable



Autoimmune oophoritis is a rare cause of primary ovarian insufficiency (POI). It happens when the body's immune system mistakenly attacks the ovaries causing inflammation, atrophy and fibrosis. These changes stop the ovaries from working normally. The main symptoms of autoimmune oophorotis are irregular or absent menstrual period (amenorrhea) and symptoms related to ovarian cysts such as abdominal cramping, bloating, nausea and vomiting. Autoimmune oophoritis may occur as part of autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type I and type II but has also been associated with lupus, pernicious anemia, myasthenia gravis and other autoimmune conditions. The underlying cause of autoimmune oophoritis is unknown. Diagnosis involves a special blood test which looks for anti-steroid or anti-ovarian antibodies, a pelvic ultrasound to look for enlarged cystic ovaries and tests to rule out other possible causes of POI. Management of autoimmune oophoritis involves emotional support, possible estrogen replacement therapy and management of other autoimmune conditions.[1][2][3]


Support and advocacy groups can help you connect with other patients and families, and they can provide valuable services. Many develop patient-centered information and are the driving force behind research for better treatments and possible cures. They can direct you to research, resources, and services. Many organizations also have experts who serve as medical advisors or provide lists of doctors/clinics. Visit the group’s website or contact them to learn about the services they offer. Inclusion on this list is not an endorsement by GARD.

Organizations Providing General Support

    Learn more

    These resources provide more information about this condition or associated symptoms. The in-depth resources contain medical and scientific language that may be hard to understand. You may want to review these resources with a medical professional.

    In-Depth Information

    • The Monarch Initiative brings together data about this condition from humans and other species to help physicians and biomedical researchers. Monarch’s tools are designed to make it easier to compare the signs and symptoms (phenotypes) of different diseases and discover common features. This initiative is a collaboration between several academic institutions across the world and is funded by the National Institutes of Health. Visit the website to explore the biology of this condition.
    • PubMed is a searchable database of medical literature and lists journal articles that discuss Autoimmune oophoritis. Click on the link to view a sample search on this topic.


      1. Nelson LM. Clinical features and diagnosis of autoimmune primary ovarian insufficiency (premature ovarian failure). UpToDate. September 21 2015; https://www.uptodate.com/contents/clinical-features-and-diagnosis-of-autoimmune-primary-ovarian-insufficiency-premature-ovarian-failure.
      2. Jacob S and Koc M. Autoimmune oophoritis: a rarely encountered ovarian lesion. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. April-June 2015; 58(2):249-51. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25885148.
      3. Welt CK. Autoimmune oophoritis in the adolescent. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2008; 1135:118-22. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18574216.